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WebRTC TURN Server: Comprehensive Setup and Configuration Guide

Enhance your WebRTC TURN server's capabilities with our comprehensive guide. Learn setup, configuration, and advanced techniques for improved performance.


WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication) is a technology that enables real-time audio, video, and data sharing directly between web browsers without the need for plugins or external applications. It is a vital tool for modern web applications, facilitating seamless peer-to-peer communication. WebRTC is widely used in video conferencing tools, online gaming, and live streaming platforms due to its efficiency and ease of use.
A critical component in the WebRTC ecosystem is the TURN (Traversal Using Relays around NAT) server. TURN servers play an essential role in facilitating communication when direct peer-to-peer connections are not possible due to network constraints like firewalls and NAT (Network Address Translation). They act as intermediaries that relay data between peers, ensuring reliable connectivity even in challenging network environments.

What is a TURN Server?

A TURN server is a network entity that helps in the traversal of network address translators (NATs) by relaying data between peers. Unlike STUN (Session Traversal Utilities for NAT) servers, which only help in discovering public IP addresses, TURN servers actively relay media and data streams. This functionality is crucial when peers are behind restrictive NATs or firewalls that prevent direct communication.
TURN servers allocate a relayed transport address for each client, allowing data to be routed through the server. This ensures that peers can communicate even if direct connections are blocked by network policies. TURN servers are often deployed alongside STUN servers to provide a comprehensive NAT traversal solution for WebRTC applications.

How TURN Servers Work?

TURN servers function by creating and managing allocations for clients. An allocation is essentially a session that binds a client to a specific relayed address on the TURN server. Here’s a simplified breakdown of the process:
  1. Allocation Request: A client requests an allocation from the TURN server.
  2. Allocation Creation: The TURN server creates an allocation and assigns a relayed transport address.
  3. Data Relay: Data sent by the client is relayed to the peer through the TURN server, and vice versa.
This process involves various TURN-specific commands and responses, ensuring secure and efficient data relay. TURN servers support multiple transport protocols, including UDP, TCP, TLS-over-TCP, and DTLS-over-UDP, to handle different network scenarios (



Setting Up and Configuring TURN Servers

Setting Up a TURN Server

Setting up a TURN server involves installing and configuring the server software. Coturn is a popular open-source TURN server that supports both STUN and TURN functionalities. Below are the steps to set up Coturn on a typical Linux server:

Step 1. Install Coturn:


1   sudo apt-get update
2   sudo apt-get install coturn
This command installs Coturn from the package repository.

Step 2. Configure Coturn:

Create and edit the configuration file, usually located at /etc/turnserver.conf:


1   sudo nano /etc/turnserver.conf
Add the following configuration settings:
1   listening-port=3478
2   fingerprint
3   use-auth-secret
4   static-auth-secret=mysecret
5   realm=my-turn-server.mycompany.com
6   total-quota=100
7   bps-capacity=0
8   stale-nonce=600
9   no-multicast-peers
10   no-cli
11   log-file=/var/log/turnserver.log
12   simple-log
This configuration sets up the TURN server to listen on port 3478, use authentication, and log activities.

Step 3. Start Coturn:

Enable and start the Coturn service:


1   sudo systemctl enable coturn
2   sudo systemctl start coturn
This command ensures Coturn starts automatically on boot and starts the service immediately.

Configuring TURN Server with WebRTC

Integrating a TURN server with a WebRTC application involves specifying the TURN server details in the ICE (Interactive Connectivity Establishment) configuration. Here’s how to configure the TURN server in a WebRTC application:

Step 1. ICE Configuration:

Define the ICE server configuration in your WebRTC application:


1   const iceConfiguration = {
2       iceServers: [
3           {
4               urls: 'turn:my-turn-server.mycompany.com:3478',
5               username: 'user',
6               credential: 'pass'
7           }
8       ]
9   };

Step 2. Create RTCPeerConnection:

Use the ICE configuration when creating the RTCPeerConnection object:


1   const peerConnection = new RTCPeerConnection(iceConfiguration);

Step 3. Handle ICE Candidates:

Implement event handlers to process ICE candidates and establish the connection:


1   peerConnection.onicecandidate = (event) => {
2       if (event.candidate) {
3           // Send the candidate to the remote peer
4           sendCandidateToRemotePeer(event.candidate);
5       }
6   };
8   peerConnection.oniceconnectionstatechange = () => {
9       console.log('ICE state: ', peerConnection.iceConnectionState);
10   };
This configuration ensures that the WebRTC application uses the TURN server for relaying data when direct peer-to-peer communication is not possible.
By following these steps, you can set up and configure a TURN server to work seamlessly with your WebRTC application, ensuring robust and reliable peer-to-peer communication regardless of network restrictions.

Advanced Applications and Use Cases

Advanced TURN Server Features

TURN servers can be enhanced with several advanced features to improve security, performance, and scalability. Some of these features include:

1. Securing TURN Servers with SSL:

Securing your TURN server with SSL certificates ensures that the communication between clients and the TURN server is encrypted, preventing eavesdropping and tampering. Here’s how to add SSL to your Coturn server:
  • Install Certbot for SSL certificate generation:


1     sudo apt-get update
2     sudo apt-get install certbot
  • Generate and Install SSL Certificate:
bash title="bash" sudo certbot certonly --standalone --preferred-challenges http -d yourdomain.com ```
  • Update Coturn Configuration to use the SSL certificates:
1     tls-listening-port=5349
2     cert=/etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/fullchain.pem
3     pkey=/etc/letsencrypt/live/yourdomain.com/privkey.pem
  • Restart Coturn to apply changes:


1     sudo systemctl restart coturn

2. Adding a Domain to the TURN Server:

Associating a domain with your TURN server not only makes it easier to remember but also enhances security by enabling HTTPS. After generating the SSL certificates, add DNS records pointing to your server’s IP address and update the TURN server configuration to use the domain name.

3. Handling Large-Scale Deployments:

For large-scale applications, deploying multiple TURN servers and load balancing between them ensures reliability and scalability. Using cloud providers and containerization tools like Docker can simplify the deployment and management of TURN servers.

Use Cases of TURN Servers in WebRTC

TURN servers are crucial in various real-world applications where reliable peer-to-peer communication is essential:

1. Video Conferencing:

In video conferencing applications, TURN servers ensure that participants can connect and communicate even when behind strict NATs or firewalls. This is vital for applications like Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and Google Meet.

2. Online Gaming:

Online multiplayer games often rely on TURN servers to facilitate real-time communication and data exchange between players. This helps maintain low latency and high performance, even in complex network environments.

3. Live Streaming:

Platforms like Twitch and YouTube Live use TURN servers to relay media streams between broadcasters and viewers. This ensures a smooth streaming experience regardless of network restrictions on either end.

4. IoT Devices:

TURN servers are also used in Internet of Things (IoT) applications to enable secure and reliable communication between devices, especially when direct peer-to-peer connections are not feasible.

Troubleshooting Common Issues

Setting up and using TURN servers can sometimes present challenges. Here are some common issues and their solutions:

1. Connection Failures:

  • Issue: Clients are unable to connect through the TURN server.
  • Solution: Verify that the TURN server is running and accessible. Check firewall settings to ensure that the necessary ports (typically 3478 for TURN and 5349 for TURN over TLS) are open. Ensure that the TURN server configuration file has the correct public IP address and domain settings.

2. Authentication Errors:

  • Issue: Clients fail to authenticate with the TURN server.
  • Solution: Ensure that the credentials provided in the ICE configuration match those configured on the TURN server. Double-check the use-auth-secret and static-auth-secret settings in the TURN server configuration.

3. Performance Issues:

  • Issue: High latency or poor performance in media transmission.
  • Solution: Monitor the TURN server’s resource usage and optimize the server configuration. Consider deploying additional TURN servers and load balancing to distribute the load. Use tools like trickle ICE to test and verify the server’s performance.

4. SSL Certificate Issues:

  • Issue: SSL certificates are not working correctly.
  • Solution: Verify the SSL certificate paths in the TURN server configuration. Ensure that the certificates are correctly generated and associated with the domain. Restart the TURN server after making changes to the SSL configuration.


In this comprehensive guide, we've delved into the essential aspects of WebRTC TURN servers, from understanding their fundamental role in facilitating peer-to-peer communication to setting them up and configuring them for various applications. TURN servers are indispensable in overcoming NAT traversal issues, ensuring that real-time communication applications like video conferencing, online gaming, and live streaming can operate smoothly even in restrictive network environments.

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