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How to Integrate MQTT with Websocket?

Learn how to integrate MQTT with Websocket for efficient real-time communication in web applications. This guide covers setup, configuration, code examples, benefits, and troubleshooting.

Introduction to MQTT and Websockets

In today's interconnected world, the need for efficient real-time communication is paramount. MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) has emerged as a lightweight messaging protocol ideal for Internet of Things (IoT) applications due to its low bandwidth requirements and reliability. Websockets, on the other hand, provide a full-duplex communication channel over a single, long-lived connection. Combining these two technologies, MQTT over Websockets, brings the best of both worlds, enabling seamless and efficient real-time data exchange.
MQTT's traditional TCP/IP-based architecture is robust, but integrating Websockets into the mix allows it to operate effectively within web browsers and other environments that require bidirectional communication through a single connection. This integration is increasingly critical in applications like live updates, remote monitoring, and real-time data streaming, where maintaining a persistent connection without constant polling is essential.
By leveraging the strengths of MQTT and Websockets, developers can build applications that are not only responsive and reliable but also scalable and efficient. In the sections that follow, we will delve deeper into understanding MQTT and Websockets, setting up an MQTT broker to use Websockets, and exploring practical code examples to illustrate their combined capabilities. Whether you're new to these technologies or looking to enhance your current setup, this guide will provide you with the necessary insights and tools to get started.

Implementation Guide of MQTT and Websockets

MQTT, or Message Queuing Telemetry Transport, is a lightweight messaging protocol designed for small sensors and mobile devices with limited bandwidth. Its publish/subscribe model allows devices to communicate in real-time, making it a popular choice for IoT applications. MQTT operates over TCP/IP, ensuring reliable message delivery even in unstable network conditions.
Websockets, on the other hand, are a protocol providing full-duplex communication channels over a single, long-lived connection. Unlike traditional HTTP requests, which are request-response based, Websockets enable continuous, bi-directional communication between the client and server, making them ideal for real-time applications.
Combining MQTT with Websockets allows developers to leverage the strengths of both protocols. This integration is particularly beneficial for web-based applications, where Websockets enable MQTT to operate efficiently within browsers, facilitating seamless and instantaneous data exchange.

Setting Up MQTT with Websockets

To get started with MQTT over Websockets, you'll need an MQTT broker that supports Websockets. Popular choices include HiveMQ, Mosquitto, and EMQX. Here's a step-by-step guide to setting up an MQTT broker with Websockets enabled.


  • A machine with a compatible operating system (Windows, macOS, Linux)
  • Administrative privileges to install and configure the broker
  • Basic knowledge of MQTT and Websockets

Initial Setup

  1. Choose an MQTT broker and download the appropriate version for your operating system.
  2. Follow the installation instructions provided by the broker's documentation.
  3. Ensure that the broker is running correctly by testing basic MQTT functionality.

Step-by-Step Configuration Guide

Step 1: Install MQTT Broker

For this guide, we'll use Mosquitto, an open-source MQTT broker. Install Mosquitto using the following commands:


1# For Debian-based systems
2sudo apt-get update
3sudo apt-get install mosquitto mosquitto-clients
5# For macOS using Homebrew
6brew install mosquitto

Step 2: Enable Websockets on the MQTT Broker

To enable Websockets, you'll need to edit the Mosquitto configuration file. Add the following lines to mosquitto.conf:
1listener 1883
2protocol mqtt
4listener 9001
5protocol websockets
Restart the Mosquitto service to apply the changes:


1sudo systemctl restart mosquitto

Step 3: Configure Client for Websockets

You'll need an MQTT client library that supports Websockets. For JavaScript applications, mqtt.js is a popular choice. Install it using npm:


1npm install mqtt

Step 4: Establish a Websocket Connection

Use the following code snippet to establish a Websocket connection with the MQTT broker:


1const mqtt = require('mqtt');
2const client = mqtt.connect('ws://localhost:9001');
4client.on('connect', () => {
5  console.log('Connected to MQTT broker via Websockets');

Step 5: Publish and Subscribe Using Websockets

Here’s how to publish and subscribe to topics using Websockets:


1client.on('connect', () => {
2  // Subscribe to a topic
3  client.subscribe('test/topic', (err) => {
4    if (!err) {
5      // Publish a message to the topic
6      client.publish('test/topic', 'Hello MQTT over Websockets');
7    }
8  });
11// Handle incoming messages
12client.on('message', (topic, message) => {
13  console.log(`Received message: ${message.toString()} on topic: ${topic}`);

Step 6: Testing and Troubleshooting

Test the setup by running your client application. Ensure the broker is correctly configured to handle Websockets. Common issues include incorrect port numbers, firewall restrictions, and misconfigured client libraries.
If you encounter issues, refer to the broker's documentation and community forums for troubleshooting tips. Additionally, use network analysis tools like Wireshark to inspect the Websocket connections and ensure messages are being transmitted correctly.

Code Snippets and Examples

Below are additional code snippets to help you get started with MQTT over Websockets:

Python Example


1import paho.mqtt.client as mqtt
3def on_connect(client, userdata, flags, rc):
4    print("Connected with result code " + str(rc))
5    client.subscribe("test/topic")
7def on_message(client, userdata, msg):
8    print(msg.topic + " " + str(msg.payload))
10client = mqtt.Client(transport="websockets")
11client.on_connect = on_connect
12client.on_message = on_message
14client.connect("localhost", 9001, 60)

JavaScript Example (Browser)


1<!DOCTYPE html>
4  <title>MQTT over Websockets</title>
5  <script src="https://unpkg.com/mqtt/dist/mqtt.min.js"></script>
8  <script>
9    const client = mqtt.connect('ws://localhost:9001');
11    client.on('connect', () => {
12      console.log('Connected to MQTT broker via Websockets');
13      client.subscribe('test/topic', (err) => {
14        if (!err) {
15          client.publish('test/topic', 'Hello from the browser');
16        }
17      });
18    });
20    client.on('message', (topic, message) => {
21      console.log(`Received message: ${message.toString()} on topic: ${topic}`);
22    });
23  </script>
These examples demonstrate how to establish connections, publish, and subscribe to topics using MQTT over Websockets in different programming environments.

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Benefits and Use Cases

MQTT over Websockets offers several advantages:
  • Real-time Communication: Enables instant data exchange, critical for applications like live updates and remote monitoring.
  • Browser Compatibility: Allows MQTT to be used in web applications without additional plugins.
  • Scalability: Efficiently handles numerous simultaneous connections, making it suitable for large-scale IoT deployments.
Common use cases include:
  • Smart Home Automation: Real-time control and monitoring of smart devices.
  • Live Data Feeds: Financial market data, sports scores, and news updates.
  • Remote Monitoring: Industrial equipment and environmental sensors.

Common Issues and Solutions

Issue 1: Connection Refused

Ensure the broker is correctly configured to accept Websocket connections. Check for typos in the configuration file and verify the correct ports are open.

Issue 2: Firewall Restrictions

Confirm that the firewall is not blocking the Websocket port. Add rules to allow traffic on the designated Websocket port.

Issue 3: Incorrect Client Configuration

Double-check the client setup, including the Websocket URL and connection options. Ensure the client library supports Websockets and is up-to-date.
Refer to the broker's documentation and community forums for additional troubleshooting tips and best practices.


MQTT over Websockets is a powerful combination that enhances real-time communication, particularly in web-based applications. By leveraging the low bandwidth and efficient messaging of MQTT with the persistent, bidirectional communication of Websockets, developers can create responsive and scalable IoT solutions. With the provided guide and examples, you can start integrating MQTT over Websockets into your projects effectively.

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